Document Type : Original Article


Biochem. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt


The bitter gourd plant Citrulluscolocynthis (L.)  is a cucurbit that is widespread in desert areas. It has many pharmaceutical, medicinal, and nutritional uses due to its high content of biologically active compounds. In this study, the total phenolic compounds (TPCs) and total flavonoids (TFs) of ethanolicC. colocynthis seed extract were estimated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify the bioactive phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the antioxidant and anticancer activities of this extract were evaluated. The extraction yield from
C. colocynthis seed using ethanol was recorded 10 g/100g seed. The total phenol (TPCs) content of the ethanolic extract obtained from C. colocynthis seed flour was 21 mg GAE g-1 dry extract, while the total flavonoid (TFCs) content was 15 mg QE g-1 dry extract. As well as the major phenolic and flavonoid compounds in C. colocynthis seed ethanolic extract, as determined by HPLC. Ellagic acid and cinnamic acid have the highest concentrations (894 and 746 µg/g dry extract, respectively) of all the components. The anticancer activity in vitro of the HCT116 and A-549 human cancer cell lines was evaluated using the MTT assay. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that the C. colocynthis seed extract inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 and A-549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. C. colocynthis seed extract had an IC50 against HCT116 and A-549 (454, and 416 µg/mL, respectively). Therefore, C. colocynthis can be used as a source to produce pharmaceutical and medicinal products.


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