Document Type : Original Article


1 Agric. Res. Cent., Egypt

2 Nat. Res. Dept., Inst. Asian Studies and Res., Zagazig Univ., Egypt


This paper reviews the heavy metal concentrations of water resources in Vietnam. Concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Fe, and Mn in ground water from the Red River and Mekong River Deltas were exceed than WHO drinking water guidelines, putting at risk the millions of Vietnamese people relying on groundwater in these regions as sources of drinking water. This situation suggests solution for drinking water suppliers together with efficient water treatment technologies for groundwater or alternative drinking water sources such as surface water or tap water. Vietnam has an expanding population and growing economy, and is undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization. It is of the utmost importance that good strategies be developed for the management of safe drinking water for both public and private supply, in the cities as well as the countryside. Educating residents of rural areas to understand the effects of contaminated drinking water on their health is essential. A long-term water quality monitoring program with more frequent testing should also be considered. In Vietnam, groundwater is obtained primarily from tubewells, which have high concentrations of pollutants such as As, Fe, Mn, and NH4+. In the areas where groundwater tests were conducted, arsenic levels ranged from 0.1– 3050 μg/L, which substantially exceed the standard of 10 μg/L which has been established by the WHO. Contamination sources are distributed over a large area from the Red River Delta in the north to the Mekong River Delta in the south, putting as many as ten million people at risk of adverse health effects. Levels of arsenic and iron in sediment are strongly correlated, which indicate that the presence of arsenic in groundwater results from the reduction of arsenic bound to iron oxyhydroxides. It is important to raise awareness of these issues among the Vietnamese public by disseminating information about the negative effects of contaminated drinking water, as well as carrying out long-term research projects to identify other sources of contamination and improving water treatment technology and water management capabilities.


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